Post Harvest Processing
Bangladesh is a densely populated agro-economy based country in Southeast Asia, and fisheries are now considered as the second most effective sector for employment generation and poverty
eradication in Bangladesh. Fisheries contribute employment for about 10% of the whole
A Seafood Processing Plant
about 15 million people are involved in different activities of fish and shrimp industry of Bangladesh for their livelihood (SHAB,2010)
. Labor employment in this sector has been increasing approximately by 3.5% annually. Fish production has been increased to 2.7 million metric tons in 2008-09, which was 1.8 million metric tons in 2000-2001 (BER, 2009)
The main export fisheries product from Bangladesh is shrimp. Before independence of the BD in 1971, there were nine fish processing plants with a production capacity of only 58 t per day. All of these plants were engaged in exporting fresh water headless shell-on prawns and frog legs to Europe and the USA.
Machine Room of A Seafood Processing Plant
The fish processing industry sector gained momentum during the period of 1972-1984, when 40 processing plants were installed by the private sector mostly under
government initiation and bank loan support to promote the sector with a vision to export shrimps and frog legs to Europe and the USA.
From 1985-1998, 72 more processing plants were established by the private sector for processing and exporting shrimp and fish products. According to a BFFEA(2009) report 148 shrimp and fish processing industries are now & their total capacity of processing 11,300 MT per day.
A Shrimp Storing Tub
Most of the Shrimp Processing plant are established in shrimp farming zone. In general shrimp farm are in range of a processing plant from 0km – 30km. when farmer harvested shrimp they store it standard sized plastic tubs with 200 kg capacity are used but loaded with maximum 120 kg shrimp and usually 20-30 kg to maximum 50 kg of slurry ice depending on storage time.
No salt, chemical preservatives or disinfectants are used in the ice or water and the processing plant regularly checks the quality of ice and water at their in house laboratory. Fish and slurry ice is loaded in the tubs in layers properly arranged in the tubs to minimize pressure damage and send it to factory by trawler or vehicale.
A Flow Chart for Shrimp Processing
Landing Room in A Plant                                                Landing/Receiving Shrimps
The fish tubs are unloaded from the trawler or vehicle directly into an intake (receiving) cool storage room. The temperature of the intake room is centrally maintained at 2o-5o C. A member of the receiving staff is responsible for the inside arrangements of the raw material. They check the temperature of the shrimps, melting ice water, physical appearances(no bad smell,colour,muscle texture etc) and or any type of intervention if present, etc considering the standard set by HACCP.Microbiological analysis has
to be conducted frequently as per demand of the buyers.
Water Treatment Facilities in A Plant
Fish should be washed and cleaned properly before handling in the factory. One thing is important here all water used in a plant are treated by own facilities. Generally water comes from around 1000 ft deep of the ground level.
Then iron and dirt is removed through water treatment plant.Then this water goes to shrimp processing plant through U.V. treatment. So, the water is WHO standard potable water.
A water Test Report
The plant generally has focused on a certain size range which best serves their production customers and proper grading has to be in place for maximum yield. Among different
Sorting                                                Grading                                             Peeling
weight size grades for HOSO and for Head Less from 4-6,6-8,8-12,13-15,26-30 up to 300-500 and broken respectively per/kg or per/lb is the most expected grade to process good conformation of quality fresh and frozen products. It’s should be make Head On,
Head Less, Peeled, Deveining on basis of buyr's requirement and ready for freezing process.In case of any waiting time steps before finalizing products, they are put into ice flakes to maintain the temperature at 0 to - 4° C.
Before freezing process shrimp should be washed well finally. In general Bangladesh have three type of freezing style, Block, Semi-IQF(For HOSO) and IQF. For Block & Semi-IQF shrimp will be freezing by Plate Freezer under -40o C for 4 hour.For IQF it will be processing by a Individual Quick Freezer required one hour rune.Generally Shrimp will be prepared in two forms, Raw and Cooked. For cooked it will be processing in a steam cooker and after cooking it will go freezing department.
Plate Freezer                                                            Individual Quick Freezer (IQF)
In whole process no antibiotic substance is used. Product will be chemical treaded like STPP or Non STPP , and will be no chemical treated , depend on buyers instruction.
Cooking Shrimp in a Stem Cooker
As this whole step is considered the most important quality checkpoint, a quality control inspector takes random samples(2% of total) from the line and checks the trimming quality Parameters (worm, texture, structure and size).
For avoiding any of cross-contamination every processing department is separated and every department is equipped with sufficient facilities. Worker are also ware different color apron maintaining color code based on HACCP principles.
The company uses different types of packaging according to the product specifications. These include Plastic Bag, Plastic Bag with Rider,
paper Box etc according to specifications. Individual packs may vary from 250gm to 2kg in a single retail pack to a 6 kg to 12 kg bulk carton. The weighing machine records data for all the products that pass through and reports any faults. After weighing and packaging, all frozen items are passed through an automatic metal detector to identify any metal foreign bodies or particles inside the package.
Master cases are labeled, loaded onto pallets, which are strapped with plastic or PVC Tape and labeled. Palletized products are taken directly from the cold store into freezer containers at -18°C for sea freighting. In general every plant has won transport to ensure safe transport of the products from factory to seaport.
Quality control and food safety
Regarding safety and quality management issues in Bangladesh, it is mostly oriented
to shrimps from post-harvest handling to product processing steps following control
In-house Laboratory of A Plant
measures based on HACCP principles. The existing Fish and Fish Products Ordinance
(Fish Inspection and Quality Control Act, 1983 and revised amended in 1997) needs
to have some corrections and additions to comply with the existing legal requirements
of food safety regulations as well to improve the quality and safety management
system for shrimps.
Every processing industry has its own quality management policy. They accordingly developed relevant manuals and guidelines to implement the safety and quality
assurance programmed at every step from raw materials to end-product level. BRIM has its own quality management policy and a QM manual and handbook, where they have clearly defined all the quality and safety assurance issues in compliance with the customer’s demands as well as existing food safety regulations. Special quality inspectors take care of the continuous quality checks.
Labour Right & Social Responsibility
Worker and their employers relation is smooth and good here. Health & Safety Protection
Is moderate. Capacity development of trade union organizations leading to organizing workers, formation, administration and function of trade unions. The child labour has already been entirely eliminated from the shrimp industry sine 2009.
Physician Facilities in a Plant                                                 Day Care Center in a Plant
The government and the relevant organisations of the shrimp industry, Bangladesh Frozen Food Exporters Association (BFFEA) and Bangladesh Shrimp and Fish Foundation (BSFF) are working closely with international organisations and international donors to continuously improve working conditions and ensure the core labour rights in the shrimp industry.
ACILS signed MoA for Implement IOL Standards in The Shrimp Industry
American Center for International Labor Solidarity (ACILS) signed a memorandum of agreement (MoA) in between Bangladesh Frozen Foods Exporters Association (BFFEA)and Bangladesh Shrimp and Fish Foundation (BSFF) very recently( The Independent). To ensuring compliance issue and labour rights at the shrimp and fish processing industry in Bangladesh Accordingly the MoA, the ACILS the BFFEA and BSFF will work together.
As per the MoA, they will promote and implement Bangladesh Labour Act (BLA) 2006 and International Labour Organisation (ILO) Core Labour Standards in the shrimp industry of the country.
Signing Ceremony of MoU between World Fish Center and Bangladesh Shrimp and Fish Foundation